Peter A. McGowan
God Created All Things
Before discussing the above question, we should remind ourselves that God created all things as attested numerous times throughout Scripture. See Ps 33:6, 9, John 1:1-3, Col 1:16, Isa 45:12.
Further, the remainder of Genesis makes clear what the great Hebrew scholar, Prof James Barr, asserts (even though he does not believe this):
"... probably, so far as I know, there is no professor of Hebrew or Old Testament at any world-class university who does not believe that the writer(s) of Genesis 1-11 intended to convey to their readers the ideas that:
(a) creation took place in a series of six days which were the same as the days of 24 hours we now experience
(b) the figures contained in the Genesis genealogies provided by simple addition a chronology from the beginning of the world up to later stages in the biblical story
(c) Noah's flood was understood to be world-wide and extinguish all human and animal life except for those in the ark."
If this is true (and unlike Prof Barr, I believe it is), then according to the Bible, the events of Gen 1 occurred about 6000 years ago. However, I wish to ask, what are the events recorded in Gen 1?
The literary structure of the creation account (Gen1:1 - 2:3) is distinguished among Scriptural passages by its very tight, strict literary form. It is so well structured that it verges on poetry. In its simplest form, it can be seen as follows:
Gen 1:1, 2 A: Prelude - God created the heavens and earth
Earth formless and worthless (God inactive)
Gen 1:3-31 B: 6 days of creation week
Gen 2:1-3 A: Postlude - God created the heavens and the earth
God sanctifies the seventh day (God resting)
Thus, the prelude and postlude are integral parts of this account by providing an introductory overview and a conclusion, but are not part of the six creation days, as will be shown shortly. [The conclusion is especially important because it defines the purpose for which the passage is included (the sanctity of the seventh day according to Bath and others). However, we are not concerned with this matter here.]
In order to better understand this passage, we observe the more detailed analysis of the passage as set out below. Several literary clues are provided in the passage to enable the reader to understand where one section finishes and the next begins. These will be discussed below.
Prelude: Gen 1:1, 2
Summary: "In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth."
Prologue: earth formless and worthless, God inactive, Spirit hovering over waters
Day 1: Gen 1:3, 4.
"Let there be light."
"It was good"
Light separates light from darkness
Light = day, darkness = night
And there was evening and there was morning - the first day.
Day 4:Gen 1:14-19.
"Let there be lights in the expanse of the heavens..."
Lights separates day from night etc.
"It was good"
And there was evening and there was morning - the fourth day.
Day 2:Gen 1:6-8.
"Let there be an expanse to separate the waters above from the water below...
Expanse = sky ("heaven")
And there was evening and there was morning - the second day.
Day 5:Gen 1:20-23.
"Let the water produce living creatures and let the birds fly across the expanse of the heavens"
"It was good"
And there was evening and there was morning - the fifth day.
Day 3:Gen 1:9-13.
A: "Let there be dry ground separated from the sea.
Dry ground = Land, waters = sea
"It was good"
B: "Let the dry land produce vegetation"
"It was good"
And there was evening and there was morning - the third day.
Day 6:Gen 1:24-31.
A: "Let the earth produce animals... after their kind..."
"It was good"
B: "Let us make man in our image..."
"It was very good"
And there was evening and there was morning - the sixth day.
Postlude: Gen 2:1-3
Conclusion: "Thus, the heavens and the earth were complete" - God finished
Purpose: God rests on, and sanctifies the seventh day in celebration of creation
We observe the following about this literary structure:
- Each day follows the strict formula, "And God said, 'Let...' ...And there was evening and morning - the nth day." Thus, the first day of creation week begins in Gen 1:3, and the sixth day ends with Gen 1:31. That is, Gen 1:2 is not part of the first day of creation activity.
- In all but day 2 we also have the phrase, "And God saw that it was good (Gen 1:4,10, 12, 18, 21, 25, 31) scattered through the text as well.
- The two halves of creation week follow the same pattern. The first half mostly concerns the act of separating (eg, waters above from waters below, light from darkness, etc.), while the second half mostly concerns populating these separated habitats with living creatures or lights (the sun and moon are not explicitly mentioned).
- There are three phases of creation involving light, water, and dry ground. Each required two steps separated by three days. In the case of the land (the third phase of day 3 and day 6), two distinct creation acts are recorded each time, each terminated by the declaration that the result was good: on day 3 it is the separation of dry land from the water and then the creation of vegetation; on day 6 God made the land produce animals, and then the land (or soil Gen 2:7) was made to produce mankind.
- The creation of the sun and moon is not recorded in this passage. All that is stated is that God created lights in the expanse of the heaven ("sky" NIV, not outer space or the starry heaven), which according to Gen 1:6 is what separated the waters below (what became on day 3 rivers, lakes and seas) from the waters above (presumably the source of dew, rain and snow in the atmosphere).
- The passage contains several nomenclature or definition statements which are introduced by the phrase, "God called the...". This occurs for "day" and "night" (1:4), the "sky" or "heaven" (1:8), and the "land" or "earth" and the "seas" (1:10). All these definition statements occur in the first three days only. The naming of the living creatures was (presumably) to be left to Adam (2:19).
- Further, there is no record (in Gen1:1-2:3) of God creating planet Earth on any of the six days. Nor is there any record of creating the water covering the planet - this was apparently all done before the first day of creation week. Thus, at the beginning of the first day of creation week, the Earth consisted of a "formless", planet covered in water and totally lifeless, over which the Spirit of God was moving (Gen 1:2).
Therefore, a simple reading of Gen1:1-2:3 suggests that a formless, worthless, lifeless, watery planet already existed at (ie, before) the beginning of creation week. This suggests that God had previously created it - a suggestion supported by Job 38:4-7, "Where were you when I laid the foundations of the earth? ... Who laid its cornerstone while the morning stars and all the sons of God shouted for joy?" Thus, other life forms existed elsewhere in the universe (apart from God) who witnessed the creation of the Earth during the planet's very foundation.
"Heaven" and "Earth"
Some of the controversy surrounding the Genesis creation account will be cleared up by examining the usage and meaning of these two words, "heaven" and "earth" in this passage. This is summarised in the table below.
Original word in Hebrew
Occurrences in Gen1:1-2:3
Gen 1:1, 8, 9, 14, 15, 17,20, 2:1
Gen 1:1, 2, 10, 11, 12, 15,17, 20, 22, 24, 25, 26, 28,29, 30, 2:1
Meaning in Gen 1:3-31
Atmospheric heaven or sky
Dry land or ground
Gen 1:8, heaven is that which separates the waters below from the waters above, that is, "sky"
Gen 1:10, earth is dry land or "ground"
Notice that the definition statement is given at the first occurrence of the word apart from the introduction - exactly where it would be expected in Hebrew literature. Thus, the usage and meaning of these words is unambiguous, consistent, and explicit by definition.
Therefore, a more consistent translation of Gen 1:1 might read, "In the beginning God created the atmosphere and the land." That is, the Genesis creation account simply records the creation of this world and not the creation of the entire universe. [It is from other Scripture that we are told that God created all else, eg, Ps 33:6, 9, John 1:1-3, Col 1:16, etc.] That is, while God created the entire universe, this is not recorded in, and not the subject of the Genesis creation account. Further, while the timing of the creation of our world, consisting of atmosphere and dry ground, is clear (about 6000 years ago) the timing of the creation of our rocky planet is not stated anywhere in the Bible - the creation of the planet could have been any where from 6000+ years ago to many billions of years ago - the Bible does not say!
Exodus 20:11 and Exodus 31:17
These two references are the only other place that may suggest God created the entire universe (not just this world) in six days. They record the following:
Ex 20:11For in six days the LORD made the heavens and the earth, the sea, and all that is in them, but he rested on the seventh day. Therefore the LORD blessed the Sabbath day and made it holy.
Ex 31:17 ...for in six days the LORD made the heavens and the earth, and on the seventh day he abstained from work and rested.
How are we to understand these passages? Before analysing them, we observe that they have a striking resemblance to the Genesis creation account. That is, these Exodus references have a number of common elements with Gen 1:1 - 2:3, namely:
- Both Genesis and Exodus record God creating the heavens and the earth
- Both talk about six days
- Both mention the seventh day
- Both mention the sea and their contents
- Both mention God resting
- Both mention the divine blessing ascribed to the seventh day
- Both mention the declared sanctity of the seventh day as a record of creation
Thus, there is an impressive verbal and structural allusion of the Exodus passages to the Genesis creation account. Now it is an elementary rule of Biblical exegesis that the semantics of the primary passage must govern the secondary passage and not vis versa. Thus, we cannot use the Exodus passages to influence the meaning of the (original) Genesis passage. However, we can use the direct link to Genesis (as shown above) to deduce the meaning of the words in Exodus.
On this basis, since, as shown above, if the Genesis creation account discusses only the creation of this world (atmosphere and land) and not the entire universe, then this is all that can be ascribed to the Exodus references. That is, the Exodus creation references do not discuss the entire universe but only our world.
It is clear from 2 Cor 12:2-4 that when the Bible uses the word "heavens" (which is always plural in the Hebrew) it could mean any one of three different heavens. This passage defines the third heaven as paradise, the celestial location (if that is a meaningful phrase) of the throne of God. Other Scripture suggests that the heavens are:
- The atmospheric heaven or "sky" as defined above (Gen 1:8) and in other places (Gen 2:19, 20, 6:7, 17, 7:3, 11, 19, 23, 8:2, 9:2, 11:4, 19:24, 22:11, 27:28, 39,Ex 9:8, 10, 22, 23, 10:21, 22, 16:4, 17:14, 24:10, Lev 26:19, Deut 1:28, 2:25,4:11, 17, 36, 5:8, 7:24, 9:1, 14, 11:11, 17, 21, 25:19, 28:12, 23, 24, 26, 29:20,30:4, 33:13, 28, 1 Chron 21:16, Job 37:3, Ps 135:6, Isa 55:10, Eze 8:3, Zech 5:9,Matt 24:35, Acts 10:12, James 5:18, etc.)
- The starry heaven or "outer space" (Gen 15:5, 22:17, 26:4, Ex 32:13, Deut 4:19,10:22, 17:3, Rev 6:13, etc.)
- The location of God's throne or "paradise" (Gen 28:12, 17, Deut 1:10, 4:39, 26:15,28:62, Ps 102:19, Jer 8:2, Matt 6:10, 16:19, 18:18, 2 Cor 12:2-4, etc.)
Thus, the usage of heaven in referring to the "sky" or atmospheric heaven is quite common (in fact, the most common) in Scripture.
By contrast, I could find no passage of Scripture that used the word "earth" in its modern sense, that is, referring to planet Earth. Rather, the Hebrew word refers to land generally, or the inhabitants of the land either locally or everywhere. Thus, this must be regarded as the exclusive use of the word in the Hebrew sense.
The Bible in Gen 1:1 - 2:3 teaches that our world, consisting of the atmospheric heaven (= "sky") and dry land, was created in six literal days about 6000 years ago. Further, it appears that God created the watery, formless, worthless, lifeless planet at some previous time, to the jubilation of life forms elsewhere in the universe.
This has a further conclusion: The "creation" recorded in Gen 1:1 - 2:3 begins with an incomplete planet which is made complete or "perfect". Thus, Genesis depicts God re-creating our world on an incomplete planet Earth.
There is yet another profound conclusion to this analysis: Since Gen 2:1 records that God finished creating "the sky and the land" and not the entire Heavens and Earth (the whole cosmos), then He has not necessarily finished His creative efforts. This will be shown to be very important. That is, if Gen 2:1-3 refers to the entire universe, then it clearly teaches that God's creative and re-creative work is now finished and complete. However, if this same passage refers only to our world (the atmosphere and dry ground), this leaves the possibility open that God could continue His creative work.
In fact, the Bible explicitly says that God's creative effort is far from over because Rev 21:1 talks about a new heaven and earth, again alluding to the Gen 1 creation account.
As shown above, the only places in the Bible which mentions the six day creation is Ex 20:11 and Ex 31:13, 17, which both also record the Sabbath as a memorial of creation and re-creation (restoration, salvation, reconciliation). That is, only a God who is a creator has the ability to also be a re-creator and saviour, and the Sabbath institution is a reminder of both these facts. Such a message is not confined to these Exodus references, see 2 Cor 5:17, Isa 45:8, 65:17, Eph 4:22-24, Rev 21:1, 5, etc, which discuss salvation in terms of God's creativity. Thus, the "recreation" of a worthless planet is used as a model of our salvation in the Bible. A loving God who is capable of working such a miracle on our planet must certainly be capable of recreating a human heart!
Thus, our salvation is dependant upon our creator's love and His re-creative efforts.
Peter A McGowan
Appendix: Heaven(s) and/or (the) Earth
In this appendix, I want to explore a possible objection to the thesis presented earlier: that Genesis 1 refers only to events on earth. This objection says that the phrase "heaven and earth" is a Hebrew technical term which necessarily includes the entire cosmos or universe. This is the position of Creation Ministries and, according to them, a number of influential commentaries. Regardless of who says it, we wish to know the facts.
Below is an exhaustive list of all the occurrences in the Bible of the phrase, "Heaven and Earth" and some of its slight variations. These may be classified approximately as follows:
Those which very probably refer to the entire universe
- Do I not fill heaven and earth (eg, 48). On purely theological grounds, I believe that this refers to the entire cosmos, but it is not clear, from this passage alone that this is the intention of the writer.
- Fixed laws of heaven and earth (eg, 50). On purely theological grounds, I believe that this refers to the entire cosmos, but it is not clear, from this passage alone that this is the intention of the writer.
- All authority in heaven and earth (eg, 64). This is clearly an all-inclusive phrase.
- His whole family in heaven and on earth (eg, 75). This is clearly an all-inclusive reference.
- Every knee should bow, in heaven and on earth (eg, 76). This is clearly an all-inclusive reference.
Those which are ambiguous
- God who created/made heaven and earth (eg, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9, 19, 22, 23, 24, 27, 29, 30, 31, 32, 38, 39, 40, 42, 43, 47, 49, 60, 70, 71, 77, 79). It is unclear if this phrase refers to just the atmosphere and dry land or the entire universe, unless, the phrase is an abbreviation of "heaven and earth and sea", see below.
- God/Lord of heaven and earth (eg, 6, 12, 17, 18, 61, 67, 72). This is similar to "God who created Heaven and earth" - see above.
- Form (eg idol) of anything in heaven or earth (eg, 7, 13). It is unclear whether this refers to just earth or the entire universe, probably the former (on purely theological grounds) so that no idols of gods were made. It is impossible to make images of truly heavenly objects because no-one has seen them.
- The LORD does what pleases Him in heaven, earth and the seas (eg, 33). This probably includes the third heaven, but this is not clear because of the reference to the seas. That is, if "heaven and earth" refers to the universe, then it already includes the seas. However, if it is "atmosphere, dry ground and seas" then the reference makes more sense.
- These gods who did not make heaven and earth (eg, 46, 73). See, "maker of heaven and earth" above. This is a clear allusion to Gen 1:1.
- Heaven and earth called as witness /to testify /to praise (eg, 11, 15, 16, 26, 36, 41, 51). This appears to be a reference to the inhabitants of heaven and earth until one realises that the Hebrews frequently asked inanimate objects to testify about some fact (eg, Gen 31:44, 48, 52, Deut 31:19, 26, Josh 22:26-34, 24:27, 1 Sam 6:18,Ps 88:37, Isa 19:19, 20, 30:8, see also, Hab 2:11, Luke 19:40). Again, it is unclear if this is a reference to just terrestrial or truly universal objects.
- Everything in heaven and earth (eg, 21). This could refer to the entire universe or just terrestrial objects - the writer simply uses this to distinguish the Great God from all pretenders.
- Signs and wonders/shake in the heavens and on the earth (eg, 53, 54, 58, 80). It is unclear whether these refer to just earth or the entire universe. I am inclined to the former because signs and wonders around the throne are not visible to terrestrial humans. Further, the heavens do not require shaking or convincing.
- In heaven and on earth and under the earth (eg, 83, 84). These are some of John's mythological references and a sample of Hebrew hyperbole.
Those which clearly refer to terrestrial objects only (ie, atmosphere and dry ground)
- Heaven, even the highest heaven and earth and/or the sea (eg, 14, 25) this is clear evidence that "heaven and earth" does not necessarily include the highest heaven (presumably God's throne) because the writer felt it necessary to include it.
- Angel/person standing/lifted between heaven and earth (eg, 20, 52, 59). This is clearly a restrictive reference to the space between the upper atmosphere and dry ground. Thus, the phrase in this case cannot mean the entire universe.
- Who stoops down to look on the heavens and the earth? (eg, 28). This is very instructive because it suggests that God can stoop down to look on the heavens - a clear reference to a system which does not necessarily include the heavenly throne room.
- God's splendour is above the earth and heavens (eg, 35). Another reference to something outside the heavens. Again, this is not universal.
- Punish the powers of heaven and kings of the earth (eg, 37). Again, this cannot be universal because not all heavenly beings deserve punishment. In view of Eph 2:2which describes Satan as "the ruler of the kingdom of the air, the spirit who is now at work in those who are disobedient", the "powers of heaven" may merely include satanic forces on earth.
- I will create a new heavens and a new earth (eg, 44, 45, 57, 82, 87). (See also "maker of heaven and earth" above.) It is very unlikely that this will refer to the entire cosmos/universe because the other creatures would not have a place to exist during this process. Thus, these texts suggest that, at least in this instance, "heaven and earth" refer to terrestrial materials.
- His glory covered the heavens and the earth (eg, 55). In this case, the context makes it quite clear that only terrestrial objects are intended.
- The heavens have withheld their dew and the earth its crops (eg, 56). This can only refer to the terrestrial weather systems.
- Heaven and earth disappear/pass away (eg, 61, 63, 66, 68, 69). This refers to the end of the world, not the end of the universe. See "create and new heavens and new earth" above.
- Gather the elect from the four winds of the earth and the ends of the heavens (eg, 65). This is purely terrestrial because the elect only exist on earth, including the dead.
- To bring all things in heaven and on earth together under one head, even Christ (eg, 74). This is a reference to the time when the kingdoms of this world will be handed over the Christ (Rev 11:18) - those in (the highest) heaven are already His.
- Reconcile to himself all things, whether things on earth or things in heaven (eg, 78). This cannot be all-inclusive as the heavenly beings do require reconciliation.
- Do not swear--not by heaven or by earth or by anything else (eg, 81). The fact that "anything else" clearly shows that heaven and earth cannot be the whole universe.
Old Testament Occurrences of "Heaven and Earth"
1. Gen 1:1 In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.
2. Gen 2:1 Thus the heavens and the earth were completed in all their vast array.
3. Gen 2:4 This is the account of the heavens and the earth when they were created. When the LORD God made the earth and the heavens--
4. Gen 14:19 and he blessed Abram, saying, "Blessed be Abram by God Most High, Creator of heaven and earth.
5. Gen 14:22 But Abram said to the king of Sodom, "I have raised my hand to the LORD, God Most High, Creator of heaven and earth, and have taken an oath
6. Gen 24:3 I want you to swear by the LORD, the God of heaven and the God of earth, that you will not get a wife for my son from the daughters of the Canaanites, among whom I am living,
7. Exo 20:4 "You shall not make for yourself an idol in the form of anything in heaven above or on the earth beneath or in the waters below.
8. Exo 20:11 For in six days the LORD made the heavens and the earth, the sea, and all that is in them, but he rested on the seventh day. Therefore the LORD blessed the Sabbath day and made it holy.
9. Exo 31:17 It will be a sign between me and the Israelites forever, for in six days the LORD made the heavens and the earth, and on the seventh day he abstained from work and rested.'"
10. Deu 3:24 "O Sovereign LORD, you have begun to show to your servant your greatness and your strong hand. For what god is there in heaven or on earth who can do the deeds and mighty works you do?
11. Deu 4:26 I call heaven and earth as witnesses against you this day that you will quickly perish from the land that you are crossing the Jordan to possess. You will not live there long but will certainly be destroyed.
12. Deu 4:39 Acknowledge and take to heart this day that the LORD is God in heaven above and on the earth below. There is no other.
13. Deu 5:8 "You shall not make for yourself an idol in the form of anything in heaven above or on the earth beneath or in the waters below.
14. Deu 10:14 To the LORD your God belong the heavens, even the highest heavens, the earth and everything in it.
15. Deu 30:19 This day I call heaven and earth as witnesses against you that I have set before you life and death, blessings and curses. Now choose life, so that you and your children may live
16. Deu 31:28 Assemble before me all the elders of your tribes and all your officials, so that I can speak these words in their hearing and call heaven and earth to testify against them.
17. Josh 2:11 When we heard of it, our hearts melted and everyone's courage failed because of you, for the LORD your God is God in heaven above and on the earth below.
18. 1 Ki 8:23 and said: "O LORD, God of Israel, there is no God like you in heaven above or on earth below--you who keep your covenant of love with your servants who continue wholeheartedly in your way.
19. 2 Ki 19:15 And Hezekiah prayed to the LORD: "O LORD, God of Israel, enthroned between the cherubim, you alone are God over all the kingdoms of the earth. You have made heaven and earth.
20. 1 Chr 21:16 David looked up and saw the angel of the LORD standing between heaven and earth, with a drawn sword in his hand extended over Jerusalem. Then David and the elders, clothed in sackcloth, fell facedown.
21. 1 Chr 29:11 Yours, O LORD, is the greatness and the power and the glory and the majesty and the splendor, for everything in heaven and earth is yours. Yours, O LORD, is the kingdom; you are exalted as head over all.
22. 2 Chr 2:12 And Hiram added: "Praise be to the LORD, the God of Israel, who made heaven and earth! He has given King David a wise son, endowed with intelligence and discernment, who will build a temple for the LORD and a palace for himself.
23. 2 Chr 6:14 He said: "O LORD, God of Israel, there is no God like you in heaven or on earth--you who keep your covenant of love with your servants who continue wholeheartedly in your way.
24. Ezra 5:11 This is the answer they gave us: "We are the servants of the God of heaven and earth, and we are rebuilding the temple that was built many years ago, one that a great king of Israel built and finished.
25. Neh 9:6 You alone are the LORD. You made the heavens, even the highest heavens, and all their starry host, the earth and all that is on it, the seas and all that is in them. You give life to everything, and the multitudes of heaven worship you.
26. Psa 69:34 Let heaven and earth praise him, the seas and all that move in them,
27. Psa 89:11 The heavens are yours, and yours also the earth; you founded the world and all that is in it.
28. Psa 113:6 who stoops down to look on the heavens and the earth?
29. Psa 115:15 May you be blessed by the LORD, the Maker of heaven and earth.
30. Psa 121:2 My help comes from the LORD, the Maker of heaven and earth.
31. Psa 124:8 Our help is in the name of the LORD, the Maker of heaven and earth.
32. Psa 134:3 May the LORD, the Maker of heaven and earth, bless you from Zion.
33. Psa 135:6 The LORD does whatever pleases him, in the heavens and on the earth, in the seas and all their depths.
34. Psa 146:6 the Maker of heaven and earth, the sea, and everything in them-- the LORD, who remains faithful forever.
35. Psa 148:13 Let them praise the name of the LORD, for his name alone is exalted; his splendor is above the earth and the heavens.
36. Isa 1:2 Hear, O heavens! Listen, O earth! For the LORD has spoken: "I reared children and brought them up, but they have rebelled against me.
37. Isa 24:21 In that day the LORD will punish the powers in the heavens above and the kings on the earth below.
38. Isa 37:16 "O LORD Almighty, God of Israel, enthroned between the cherubim, you alone are God over all the kingdoms of the earth. You have made heaven and earth.
39. Isa 42:5 This is what God the LORD says-- he who created the heavens and stretched them out, who spread out the earth and all that comes out of it, who gives breath to its people, and life to those who walk on it:
40. Isa 44:24 "This is what the LORD says-- your Redeemer, who formed you in the womb: I am the LORD, who has made all things, who alone stretched out the heavens, who spread out the earth by myself,
41. Isa 49:13 Shout for joy, O heavens; rejoice, O earth; burst into song, O mountains! For the LORD comforts his people and will have compassion on his afflicted ones.
42. Isa 51:13 that you forget the LORD your Maker, who stretched out the heavens and laid the foundations of the earth, that you live in constant terror every day because of the wrath of the oppressor, who is bent on destruction? For where is the wrath of the oppressor?
43. Isa 51:16 I have put my words in your mouth and covered you with the shadow of my hand-- I who set the heavens in place, who laid the foundations of the earth, and who say to Zion, 'You are my people.'"
44. Isa 65:17 "Behold, I will create new heavens and a new earth. The former things will not be remembered, nor will they come to mind.
45. Isa 66:22 "As the new heavens and the new earth that I make will endure before me," declares the LORD, "so will your name and descendants endure.
46. Jer 10:11 "Tell them this: 'These gods, who did not make the heavens and the earth, will perish from the earth and from under the heavens.'"
47. Jer 10:12 But God made the earth by his power; he founded the world by his wisdom and stretched out the heavens by his understanding.
48. Jer 23:24 Can anyone hide in secret places so that I cannot see him?" declares the LORD. "Do not I fill heaven and earth?" declares the LORD.
49. Jer 32:17 "Ah, Sovereign LORD, you have made the heavens and the earth by your great power and outstretched arm. Nothing is too hard for you.
50. Jer 33:25 This is what the LORD says: 'If I have not established my covenant with day and night and the fixed laws of heaven and earth,
51. Jer 51:48 Then heaven and earth and all that is in them will shout for joy over Babylon, for out of the north destroyers will attack her," declares the LORD.
52. Ezek 8:3 He stretched out what looked like a hand and took me by the hair of my head. The Spirit lifted me up between earth and heaven and in visions of God he took me to Jerusalem, to the entrance to the north gate of the inner court, where the idol that provokes to jealousy stood.
53. Dan 6:27 He rescues and he saves; he performs signs and wonders in the heavens and on the earth. He has rescued Daniel from the power of the lions."
54. Joel 2:30 I will show wonders in the heavens and on the earth, blood and fire and billows of smoke.
55. Hab 3:3 God came from Teman, the Holy One from Mount Paran. Selah His glory covered the heavens and his praise filled the earth.
56. Hag 1:10 Therefore, because of you the heavens have withheld their dew and the earth its crops.
57. Hag 2:6 "This is what the LORD Almighty says: 'In a little while I will once more shake the heavens and the earth, the sea and the dry land.
58. Hag 2:21 "Tell Zerubbabel governor of Judah that I will shake the heavens and the earth.
59. Zec 5:9 Then I looked up--and there before me were two women, with the wind in their wings! They had wings like those of a stork, and they lifted up the basket between heaven and earth.
60. Zec 12:1 This is the word of the LORD concerning Israel. The LORD, who stretches out the heavens, who lays the foundation of the earth, and who forms the spirit of man within him, declares:
New Testament Occurrences of "Heaven and Earth"
61. Mat 5:18 I tell you the truth, until heaven and earth disappear, not the smallest letter, not the least stroke of a pen, will by any means disappear from the Law until everything is accomplished.
62. Mat 11:25 At that time Jesus said, "I praise you, Father, Lord of heaven and earth, because you have hidden these things from the wise and learned, and revealed them to little children.
63. Mat 24:35 Heaven and earth will pass away, but my words will never pass away.
64. Mat 28:18 Then Jesus came to them and said, "All authority in heaven and on earth has been given to me.
65. Mark 13:27 And he will send his angels and gather his elect from the four winds, from the ends of the earth to the ends of the heavens.
66. Mark 13:31 Heaven and earth will pass away, but my words will never pass away.
67. Luke 10:21 At that time Jesus, full of joy through the Holy Spirit, said, "I praise you, Father, Lord of heaven and earth, because you have hidden these things from the wise and learned, and revealed them to little children. Yes, Father, for this was your good pleasure.
68. Luke 16:17 It is easier for heaven and earth to disappear than for the least stroke of a pen to drop out of the Law.
69. Luke 21:33 Heaven and earth will pass away, but my words will never pass away.
70. Acts 4:24 When they heard this, they raised their voices together in prayer to God. "Sovereign Lord," they said, "you made the heaven and the earth and the sea, and everything in them.
71. Acts 14:15 "Men, why are you doing this? We too are only men, human like you. We are bringing you good news, telling you to turn from these worthless things to the living God, who made heaven and earth and sea and everything in them.
72. Acts 17:24 "The God who made the world and everything in it is the Lord of heaven and earth and does not live in temples built by hands.
73. 1 Cor 8:5 For even if there are so-called gods, whether in heaven or on earth (as indeed there are many "gods" and many "lords"),
74. Eph 1:10 to be put into effect when the times will have reached their fulfillment--to bring all things in heaven and on earth together under one head, even Christ.
75. Eph 3:15 from whom his whole family in heaven and on earth derives its name.
76. Phil 2:10 that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, in heaven and on earth and under the earth,
77. Col 1:16 For by him all things were created: things in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or powers or rulers or authorities; all things were created by him and for him.
78. Col 1:20 and through him to reconcile to himself all things, whether things on earth or things in heaven, by making peace through his blood, shed on the cross.
79. Heb 1:10 He also says, "In the beginning, O Lord, you laid the foundations of the earth, and the heavens are the work of your hands.
80. Heb 12:26 At that time his voice shook the earth, but now he has promised, "Once more I will shake not only the earth but also the heavens."
81. James 5:12 Above all, my brothers, do not swear--not by heaven or by earth or by anything else. Let your "Yes" be yes, and your "No," no, or you will be condemned.
82. 2 Pet 3:13 But in keeping with his promise we are looking forward to a new heaven and a new earth, the home of righteousness.
83. Rev 5:3 But no one in heaven or on earth or under the earth could open the scroll or even look inside it.
84. Rev 5:13 Then I heard every creature in heaven and on earth and under the earth and on the sea, and all that is in them, singing: "To him who sits on the throne and to the Lamb be praise and honor and glory and power, for ever and ever!"
85. Rev 10:6 And he swore by him who lives for ever and ever, who created the heavens and all that is in them, the earth and all that is in it, and the sea and all that is in it, and said, "There will be no more delay!
86. Rev 14:7 He said in a loud voice, "Fear God and give him glory, because the hour of his judgment has come. Worship him who made the heavens, the earth, the sea and the springs of water."
87. Rev 21:1 Then I saw a new heaven and a new earth, for the first heaven and the first earth had passed away, and there was no longer any sea.